root/src/lua/HISTORY

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1 HISTORY for Lua 5.1
2
3 * Changes from version 5.0 to 5.1
4   -------------------------------
5   Language:
6   + new module system.
7   + new semantics for control variables of fors.
8   + new semantics for setn/getn.
9   + new syntax/semantics for varargs.
10   + new long strings and comments.
11   + new `mod' operator (`%')
12   + new length operator #t
13   + metatables for all types
14   API:
15   + new functions: lua_createtable, lua_get(set)field, lua_push(to)integer.
16   + user supplies memory allocator (lua_open becomes lua_newstate).
17   + luaopen_* functions must be called through Lua.
18   Implementation:
19   + new configuration scheme via luaconf.h.
20   + incremental garbage collection.
21   + better handling of end-of-line in the lexer.
22   + fully reentrant parser (new Lua function `load')
23   + better support for 64-bit machines.
24   + native loadlib support for Mac OS X.
25   + standard distribution in only one library (lualib.a merged into lua.a)
26
27 * Changes from version 4.0 to 5.0
28   -------------------------------
29   Language:
30   + lexical scoping.
31   + Lua coroutines.
32   + standard libraries now packaged in tables.
33   + tags replaced by metatables and tag methods replaced by metamethods,
34     stored in metatables.
35   + proper tail calls.
36   + each function can have its own global table, which can be shared.
37   + new __newindex metamethod, called when we insert a new key into a table.
38   + new block comments: --[[ ... ]].
39   + new generic for.
40   + new weak tables.
41   + new boolean type.
42   + new syntax "local function".
43   + (f()) returns the first value returned by f.
44   + {f()} fills a table with all values returned by f.
45   + \n ignored in [[\n .
46   + fixed and-or priorities.
47   + more general syntax for function definition (e.g. function a.x.y:f()...end).
48   + more general syntax for function calls (e.g. (print or write)(9)).
49   + new functions (time/date, tmpfile, unpack, require, load*, etc.).
50   API:
51   + chunks are loaded by using lua_load; new luaL_loadfile and luaL_loadbuffer.
52   + introduced lightweight userdata, a simple "void*" without a metatable.
53   + new error handling protocol: the core no longer prints error messages;
54     all errors are reported to the caller on the stack.
55   + new lua_atpanic for host cleanup.
56   + new, signal-safe, hook scheme.
57   Implementation:
58   + new license: MIT.
59   + new, faster, register-based virtual machine.
60   + support for external multithreading and coroutines.
61   + new and consistent error message format.
62   + the core no longer needs "stdio.h" for anything (except for a single
63     use of sprintf to convert numbers to strings).
64   + lua.c now runs the environment variable LUA_INIT, if present. It can
65     be "@filename", to run a file, or the chunk itself.
66   + support for user extensions in lua.c.
67     sample implementation given for command line editing.
68   + new dynamic loading library, active by default on several platforms.
69   + safe garbage-collector metamethods.
70   + precompiled bytecodes checked for integrity (secure binary dostring).
71   + strings are fully aligned.
72   + position capture in string.find.
73   + read('*l') can read lines with embedded zeros.
74
75 * Changes from version 3.2 to 4.0
76   -------------------------------
77   Language:
78   + new "break" and "for" statements (both numerical and for tables).
79   + uniform treatment of globals: globals are now stored in a Lua table.
80   + improved error messages.
81   + no more '$debug': full speed *and* full debug information.
82   + new read form: read(N) for next N bytes.
83   + general read patterns now deprecated.
84     (still available with -DCOMPAT_READPATTERNS.)
85   + all return values are passed as arguments for the last function
86     (old semantics still available with -DLUA_COMPAT_ARGRET)
87   + garbage collection tag methods for tables now deprecated.
88   + there is now only one tag method for order.
89   API:
90   + New API: fully re-entrant, simpler, and more efficient.
91   + New debug API.
92   Implementation:
93   + faster than ever: cleaner virtual machine and new hashing algorithm.
94   + non-recursive garbage-collector algorithm.
95   + reduced memory usage for programs with many strings.
96   + improved treatment for memory allocation errors.
97   + improved support for 16-bit machines (we hope).
98   + code now compiles unmodified as both ANSI C and C++.
99   + numbers in bases other than 10 are converted using strtoul.
100   + new -f option in Lua to support #! scripts.
101   + luac can now combine text and binaries.
102
103 * Changes from version 3.1 to 3.2
104   -------------------------------
105   + redirected all output in Lua's core to _ERRORMESSAGE and _ALERT.
106   + increased limit on the number of constants and globals per function
107     (from 2^16 to 2^24).
108   + debugging info (lua_debug and hooks) moved into lua_state and new API
109     functions provided to get and set this info.
110   + new debug lib gives full debugging access within Lua.
111   + new table functions "foreachi", "sort", "tinsert", "tremove", "getn".
112   + new io functions "flush", "seek".
113
114 * Changes from version 3.0 to 3.1
115   -------------------------------
116   + NEW FEATURE: anonymous functions with closures (via "upvalues").
117   + new syntax:
118     - local variables in chunks.
119     - better scope control with DO block END.
120     - constructors can now be also written: { record-part; list-part }.
121     - more general syntax for function calls and lvalues, e.g.:
122       f(x).y=1
123       o:f(x,y):g(z)
124       f"string" is sugar for f("string")
125   + strings may now contain arbitrary binary data (e.g., embedded zeros).
126   + major code re-organization and clean-up; reduced module interdependecies.
127   + no arbitrary limits on the total number of constants and globals.
128   + support for multiple global contexts.
129   + better syntax error messages.
130   + new traversal functions "foreach" and "foreachvar".
131   + the default for numbers is now double.
132     changing it to use floats or longs is easy.
133   + complete debug information stored in pre-compiled chunks.
134   + sample interpreter now prompts user when run interactively, and also
135     handles control-C interruptions gracefully.
136
137 * Changes from version 2.5 to 3.0
138   -------------------------------
139   + NEW CONCEPT: "tag methods".
140     Tag methods replace fallbacks as the meta-mechanism for extending the
141     semantics of Lua. Whereas fallbacks had a global nature, tag methods
142     work on objects having the same tag (e.g., groups of tables).
143     Existing code that uses fallbacks should work without change.
144   + new, general syntax for constructors {[exp] = exp, ... }.
145   + support for handling variable number of arguments in functions (varargs).
146   + support for conditional compilation ($if ... $else ... $end).
147   + cleaner semantics in API simplifies host code.
148   + better support for writing libraries (auxlib.h).
149   + better type checking and error messages in the standard library.
150   + luac can now also undump.
151
152 * Changes from version 2.4 to 2.5
153   -------------------------------
154   + io and string libraries are now based on pattern matching;
155     the old libraries are still available for compatibility
156   + dofile and dostring can now return values (via return statement)
157   + better support for 16- and 64-bit machines
158   + expanded documentation, with more examples
159
160 * Changes from version 2.2 to 2.4
161   -------------------------------
162   + external compiler creates portable binary files that can be loaded faster
163   + interface for debugging and profiling
164   + new "getglobal" fallback
165   + new functions for handling references to Lua objects
166   + new functions in standard lib
167   + only one copy of each string is stored
168   + expanded documentation, with more examples
169
170 * Changes from version 2.1 to 2.2
171   -------------------------------
172   + functions now may be declared with any "lvalue" as a name
173   + garbage collection of functions
174   + support for pipes
175
176 * Changes from version 1.1 to 2.1
177   -------------------------------
178   + object-oriented support
179   + fallbacks
180   + simplified syntax for tables
181   + many internal improvements
182
183 (end of HISTORY)
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